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Intermittent Fasting To Increase Muscle Mass And Lose Weight

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intermittent fasting
intermittent fasting

For some time there has been a total inversion of the currents of thought with regard to the principles of weight loss and the basics of muscle anabolism.

Classic Approach

Food-induced thermogenesis

The fundamentals of “traditional” dietetics suggest losing weight by exploiting also the specific dynamic action of food (ADS), or energy expenditure attributable to digestive, absorption and metabolic processes.

In practice, with the same calories introduced, increasing the division of meals it is possible to burn more energy to process them. This allows you to reduce the amount of time “on an empty stomach” avoiding the “hunger” and keeping the metabolism speedy.

Cortisol and Thyroid Hormones

Some argue that this practice also favors the containment of an unwanted hormone, cortisol (also called “stress hormone”) and maintenance of thyroid function (TSH and T3). Obviously, this system works as long as the caloric amount, the nutritional distribution and the glycemic load-gauges of the meals are appropriate.

Preventing Catabolism

At the same time, in the context of muscle growth, it is (or was) a common opinion that to promote anabolism it was necessary to “feed” continuously (and “as much as possible”, avoiding the increase of fat) muscle fibrocells, in order to cancel any form of catabolism and promote proteosynthesis, ESPECIALLY thanks to the insulin stimulus.
And yet, today someone challenges!

What is Intermittent Fasting

Recently it is proposed (in “mille sals”) a totally opposite weight loss system which, according to what is rumored, has excellent results: intermittent fasting. This principle is already heavily inflated and, to be sure, rather confused. It goes from the “caveman’s diet”, which involves a huge binge with one or two days of fasting, at the most reasoned “system 16/8” (where 16 are the hours of fasting and 8 those in which 2 or 3 are consumed meals).
The cardinal principle of intermittent fasting is to create a fasting “window” (time lapse) with a duration that affects the overall caloric balance and hormone metabolism.

How does it work

It seems that in conditions of food abstinence, in addition to a total insulin calm (remember that insulin is the parabolic hormone par excellence but also responsible for fat storage), there is a significant increase in another rather “interesting” hormone: l ‘IGF-1 or somatomedin (some also mention an increase in testosterone).

The long deprivation of food is then responsible for the secretion of GH (somatotropin), also called “growth hormone” or, more sympathetically, “hormone of wellness”. Unlike insulin, GH, while increasing hypertrophy, does not cause an adipose deposit, but the opposite! That is, it promotes the lipolysis necessary for weight loss. In practice, GH improves “all-around” body composition.
Always in bodybuilding, to increase muscle and decrease fat, it is essential to periodize the diet and training by pursuing distinctly first one and then the other goal; today, since the intermittent fasting results in an improvement of the body composition bilaterally (by increasing muscle mass and weight loss) it seems to be the only real solution to all problems.

 

 

5 Safe And Natural Remedies Against Hair Fall

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remedies for hair loss
remedies for hair loss

Falling and thinning hair can be a frustrating experience, no matter who you are. They can be harmful and reduce self-confidence, especially if they take place suddenly and quickly. Despite concern, we must not lose hope! There are many treatments and solutions against hair loss, and some are derived directly from nature! Here are some of the many natural remedies available.

Jojoba
Jojoba oil comes from the seeds of the Jojoba plant, also called Simmondsia chinensis, and is native to southern Arizona, southern California and northwestern Mexico. Despite its name, jojoba oil is not an oil. It is actually a natural wax that has been used in folk medicine for many years because of its healing and moisturizing properties.

Jojoba oil has been shown to help improve the health of the skin and hair, promoting a healthy scalp in particular. Although the scalp is often overlooked during hair loss, it is incredibly important to maintain health to achieve thick, healthy hair. Using jojoba can be the perfect base for helping you grow new hair.

 

Red clover
Red clover is a plant found in nature and provides many positive effects on a variety of disorders. Native to Europe, West Asia and North America, red clover is rich in beneficial hair isoflavones and has also been used as a natural remedy for various types of skin irritation and inflammation. The isoflavones in red clover strengthen the hair follicles, also making the hair smooth, reducing dandruff and irritation.

Emu oil
Emu Oil contains natural fatty acids that have been shown to have a number of benefits for the general health of the skin, against dry skin, the prevention of fine lines and wrinkles. The calming and regenerating composition of Emu oil also makes it a great natural source for healthier and thicker hair. Its anti-inflammatory properties have the ability to remove harmful damage to the scalp and promote the growth of thicker and healthier hair.

Indian gooseberries
Indian gooseberry (also known as AMLA) is used in the traditional healing method of Ayurveda and has many rejuvenating properties that can provide a range of benefits throughout the body. The high content of antioxidants and vitamins of Indian gooseberry make it an excellent natural remedy to help prevent hair loss and promote future growth. Its high concentration of vitamin C helps to prevent deficiency, which can sometimes cause hair thinning. In addition, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties of Indian gooseberry can also maintain the health of the scalp.

Aloe Vera
Aloe vera is not only suitable for the treatment of sunburn! The soothing and anti-inflammatory natural properties of the aloe vera plant can also work wonders for hair and scalp health. Aloe vera has enzymes that can help promote hair growth, alkalizing properties that can help manage hair and scalp pH. It also soothes and treats superficial skin irritations, promoting healthy hair growth.

So I Turned Arrogance Into Kindness, Presumption Into Humility, Acedia In Solidarity

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awareness
awareness

I spent too much time drowning in my sufferings, in a loneliness that extinguishes you slowly like a candle, and in a humiliating self-pity. Now time is up, it’s time to live! Now I no longer feel like a passive spectator of my life, I no longer want to look at myself while I inflict atrocious punishments; that self-destructive process is over, even if it has left deep and irreparable scars in me! Despite this I found myself, thanks to an endless series of circumstances that interacted with each other.

Love for myself mainly and respect for those who love you. Rediscover values such as friendship has been fundamental in my path of healing, solidarity as a point of support. But how many still have to find out? In those who are suffering in total solitude … a tomorrow, their “silent” shouts will have to go straight to the indifferent heart! And now, silence is staged! … please, listen. How many years will have to pass before removing the rubble of a dull life, the tumor brought only destruction and death of the soul. Rebuilding will be more difficult than to raze on the ground, we must restore the connections between the heart and the brain, between soul and self-esteem, between presumption and humility … every feeling and emotion must have the right place in a body to be recreated and a soul to regenerate.

I struggled so much to win tumors, I fought bitterly on different terrains, but my stubbornness, combined with a strong belief and confidence that came from the people around me, were a stepping stone to touch life with my hands , caress her, love her, respect her as never before … and do not betray her anymore …! If the tumors cease to mortify me, there are many hopes to which I cling and each has its own meaning: complete healing, forgiveness, the desire to live freely but without excesses (and this is what I am already doing). Being myself before «Gascon», transforming arrogance into kindness, presumption in humility, enthusiasm in enthusiasm, sloth in solidarity … Being able to combine love with respect and betrayal with forgiveness!

You can lead a life that goes beyond the expectations even in the presence of one or more tumors, the important thing is to believe in yourself, trust people who reach out to help you. The possibilities of a normal life are many, and I’m trying them all. It is clear that all this is possible only if life gives you a proof of appeal, only in this way can you demonstrate the changes and mistakes made will be the point from which to start, from which it is possible to shape a new man.

Turmeric: found the way to make curcumin comparable … even against cancer cells

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Turmeric to treat tumors
Turmeric to treat tumors

In turmeric there is a substance, curcumin, which seems to have a particularly powerful action in the inhibition of cancer cells. This is established by scientists from the University of California at the San Diego School of Medicine, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Beijing and Zhejiang.

Curcumin has long been under observation, previous studies have shown that it is able to interfere with the biochemical processes of cancer cells preventing their proliferation.

The basic problem, however, is that until now the researchers could not find an effective way to allow curcumin to enter the bloodstream. This substance is in fact expelled too quickly to hit the diseased cells.

“In general, curcumin is expelled from the body quickly enough, because it is an effective drug, it needs to be modified to enter the bloodstream and stay in the body long enough to hit the tumor cells and it may not be enough to slow the cancer down. human patients “, says the study.

What’s the news? The team managed to find a way to dissolve curcumin in water and make it effective against tumors.

Curcumin is poorly soluble in water. According to scholarly findings, the platinum-curcumin combination kills cancer cells by fragmenting their DNA. Although the researchers have only tested the administration of curcumin, the contribution of this study to the treatment of the tumor may have new effects also from the probability that the method works with other drugs.

“In cancer therapy, one of the measures that binds a certain number of drugs is their poor solubility,” says Dipanjan Pan, a professor of bioengineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “Feasibility becomes important only when the drug becomes soluble in water.

“When you want to administer a drug, it must be soluble in water to flow through the bloodstream,” explains one of the researchers, Santosh Misra.

In practice, a system has been created using platinum to make curcumin soluble and to make it more effective against melanoma and breast cancer.

“We found the key to demonstrating the effectiveness of the therapy and solving a long-standing problem with the insolubility of curcumin,” continued Misra.

Curcumin is able to prevent the phosphorylation of STAT3, a transcription factor that leads to the growth of cancer cells and allows them to survive. The combination of curcumin and platinum is able to kill diseased cells by fragmenting their DNA.

Turmeric, is defined as the spice of wonders. With a thousand virtues and benefits it is excellent to be inserted daily in our diet to promote the well-being of the body. The benefits have been known since ancient times, especially in Indian medicine. This important change in science could certainly be a breakthrough, now the team studies how it will be possible to take advantage of this benefit in traditional medicine.

Vegan steamed ravioli

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vegan steamed ravioli

Preparation time: 1 hour and a half
Cooking time: 30 minutes Time
Rest: 30 minutes
Doses: for 30 ravioli
Difficulty: medium

Do you want to organize an ethnic dinner in a vegan key? No fear! Here is the recipe for preparing delicious steamed ravioli without meat or animal derivatives: their filling is based on seitan and seasonal vegetables.

The ravioli you prepare at home will definitely be more good, true and healthy than those served at the Chinese restaurant!

Ingredients:

  • 250 gr of flour
  • 130 g of water
  • 2 salt sockets
  • 2 tablespoons of sesame oil
  • 1 tablespoon of extra virgin olive oil
  • 200 g of seitan steaks
  • 4-5 leaves of cabbage
  • 1 carrot
  • half onion
  • salt
  • 30 g grated ginger

Vegan steamed ravioli: preparation

Put the flour, cold water, sesame oil, extra virgin olive oil and salt in a large bowl, mix all the ingredients and knead until you get a homogeneous and elastic mixture, then let the dough rest for about 30 minutes in a warm place (it should not rise, just soften).

Meanwhile, prepare the filling of the ravioli: pour a tablespoon of oil in a pan, put it on the stove and after a few minutes add the onion cut into thin slices, the cabbage cut into cigarettes and the carrots cut into very small cubes; let brown for 10 minutes, then add the diced seitan, add a little hot water and continue cooking for another 10 minutes, until the mixture is well cooked and dry.

At this point, when the fire is off, add the grated ginger and stir the vegetables to flavor.

Prepare the filling, resume the dough and place it on your floured work surface, roll it out with a rolling pin to obtain a thickness of 3-4 mm and with a cup you have made many discs with a diameter of 6-8 cm at most.

When you have cut out the whole layer (remixed and restoring all the advanced cuttings) you can fill the disks with the vegetable and seitan preparation you have cooked: just put a teaspoon of stuffing in the middle of each disc (no more, otherwise close them the ravioli will boil) and fold the disc in two, seal the edges with your fingers, press to seal and set aside.

Once you have prepared all the ravioli, place them in the steamer, on a savoy leaf and cook for about 12 minutes, then serve and serve with yogurt or tomato sauce!

Coffee And Caffeine: Taste, Benefits And Risks

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Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world, appreciated for its taste and aroma, at the center of real rituals and moments of social gathering. Rich in many different substances, especially caffeine, it has very important effects on the body, which do not end with the simple stimulating effect but which involve various organs and systems, with benefits and even some risks.

Coffee is obtained from the seed of several species belonging to the Rubiaceae family, a family that includes more than 500 genres and over 6000 species. The classification of plants of the genus Coffea is made difficult by the remarkable genetic variability of plants and seeds: the two most important species are Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora or robust.

The origin of the coffee is traced right up to the Ethiopian highlands. Legend has it that a shepherd, after observing the exciting effects that the consumption of leaves and fruits of a shrub, has made a gift to a monk who used them to prepare an infusion to be consumed to stay awake during the long nights of prayer. The infusion must have worked well because the Arabs, trading with the distant lands of Africa, immediately recognized the value and began to cultivate it and exchange it. In the early 1500s coffee was already consumed throughout the Muslim world, and soon European merchants began buying coffee in Yemen to resell it to the courts of the old continent, which were particularly infatuated.

At the beginning of the 1600s the Venetians succeeded in importing the first coffee plants in Italy and, in the course of the century, the cultivation of coffee extended to the East Indies thanks to the Dutch and the Caribbean thanks to the French. Meanwhile the Spaniards began cultivation in the Philippines and Latin America, with an ever-growing production due to the increasing popularity of the drink.

Coffee is currently one of the most traded products on the market and is often an important item for the trade balance of many developing countries. Its quotations move huge capitals, the market is complex and often prone to important speculations, the demand grows constantly and requires an increase in production that, given the volumes, poses many problems from an environmental point of view (the forests do not only cut them down to produce palm oil, it must be remembered from time to time, here detailed information and statistics on the cultivation of coffee in the world). The annual production exceeds 8 million tons, with Brazil alone contributing with 3 million, followed by Vietnam, Colombia, Ethiopia, India, Honduras and Guatemala.

Making coffee for fun and profit

The two species most used for the production of coffee are Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (robusta). Two other species are grown to a much smaller extent, Coffea liberica and Coffea dewevrei. About two-thirds of the coffee traded on the market is obtained from C. arabica, mainly grown in Latin America, Central Africa and Indonesia, while the other third comes from plantations of C. robusta, a more resistant and vigorous species, grown in West Africa , in Southeast Asia and Brazil.

The height of the plant varies from 5 meters of the arabica to 10 meters of the robust but in the plantation is maintained around the three meters to make it easier to harvest the fruit. Sowing is done using selected grains; the plant becomes productive around the fifth year, after the first flowering. The flowers are white, in groups of two or three, very fragrant, and when fully ripe they give rise to fruits, called cherries, oval shaped and dark red, 1-2 cm long. The fruit pulp contains two seeds covered with a thin silver film, wrapped in a golden film called parchment.

The flowering can take place several times during the year and on the same branch can be found both the flowers and the ripe cherries. For this reason, the collection must be done by hand and with great care. The plant, if well taken care of, can remain productive up to thirty years.

Once harvested, the fruits are freed of the mucilaginous pulp using two different techniques:

  • Dry method: it is the oldest and most simple, it does not require any particular machinery. The cherries, after careful cleaning, are left to dry and ferment in the sun until reaching a moisture content of about 12%. At this point a mechanical separation of the skins is carried out. It is the preferred method in dry and sunny areas, from Brazil to Ethiopia; all the Robusta is worked using this technique.

 

  • Wet method: requires special equipment and the availability of large quantities of water. After cleaning in running water the fruits are crushed and the pulp removed. The remaining mucilage is fermented in special tanks for 24-36 hours and then eliminated thanks to a new wash. At this stage of processing the humidity is around 50% and is brought to 12% for drying, in the sun or in special machinery. This method is the one preferred in the processing of Arabica and if well executed allows to enhance the aroma of the coffee, despite the loss of a small amount of minerals and sugars during the washings.

Fermentation takes place by bacteria naturally present on fruits and seeds and does not require any addition of colonies. Generally speaking, bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc predominate, which degrade the mucilage present, freeing substances that contribute to the aroma and taste of coffee. The fermented Arabica bean has a green color and an oval shape whereas the Robusta bean is round and yellow or yellow-brown.

The processed seeds are selected, calibrated and packaged in classic 60-70 kg jute bags, shipped and exchanged all over the world, ready for the next stages of processing.

Coffee roasting

Coffee roastingRoasting is a critical phase in coffee processing during which the hard and compact seeds are toasted and then used in the preparation of beverages. During this phase many compounds present disappear or are degraded, while others are formed, through reactions that are essential for the development of the aroma and taste of the final product.

Toasting takes place at temperatures between 200 and 250 ° C. In this phase the seeds increase in volume, from 50 to 80% compared to the initial one, and darken due to the formation of compounds whose structure is still little known. The final color depends on time and roasting temperature.

In the early stages of the roasting there is denaturation of the proteins present while the still present water evaporates. Above 100 ° C the grain begins to swell, releases the remaining water and increases in volume; as the temperature increases, the reactions between the substances present are progressing faster and faster, until the reactions of Maillard responsible for the darkening and the typical aroma are triggered. After 180 ° C, the grain slits along the median furrow while hundreds of different volatile substances are formed. In the final phase, between 200 and 250 ° C, the humidity is reduced to 1% and there is caramelization and deposition of a film of fatty acids on the surface of the grain. Higher temperatures should be avoided, as the grain starts to burn, producing soot.

Roasting times vary from 2 to 50 minutes, depending on the techniques and machinery used. The temperatures reached also vary: in the USA and Northern Europe, temperatures are around 220 ° C for about ten minutes, while in Italy higher temperatures are preferred, around 240 ° C, which allows to obtain a coffee more suitable for the preparation of espresso.

The roasted beans are very fragile and can be easily reduced to powder, for the preparation of the drink. Each coffee is usually obtained by mixing different varieties, each toasted individually, to obtain the desired taste and aroma. It is still a process in which the craft component has a significant importance, even if in recent years new process control and evaluation technologies have been introduced, to allow the maintenance of a constant quality

Green coffee can be stored for a long time, even more than two years, and some varieties are specially made to age in the warehouse, to increase its quality. Instead, the roasted coffee must be used within three months, keeping it at a low temperature and in the absence of oxygen. The greatest risk is in fact the oxidation of the fats present, the rancidity and the development of unpleasant smells and tastes. The ground coffee has an even shorter life due to the considerable increase of the surface exposed to the air and to the oxidation processes: for this reason vacuum preservation techniques are used which allow to lengthen the storage time of the powders.

Coffee, Caffeine And Health

The WHO has defined coffee as a “component of the non-nutritious diet” even if in reality both the beans and the drink contain nutrients and various biologically active substances. In the bean are present proteins and carbohydrates, fibers such as cellulose and polysaccharides rich in galactose, mannose and arabinose, which are degraded during roasting and tend to react with each other, with a very reduced presence of proteins and free sugars in the powder and in the drink .

The lipids present are much more stable at roasting: free fatty acids, waxes and esters are present. Organic acids are also present, especially acetic acid and formic acid, and to a lesser extent tartaric, malic, citric and derivative lactic acids.

Abundant the presence of chlorogenic acid which during the roasting is degraded with release of its components and formation of derivatives; the presence in the drink varies considerably depending on origin, processing and preparation. In reality it is a family of compounds that in several studies has shown to be able to reduce blood pressure, contribute to a better control of glycemia and to a reduction of insulin peaks. Celebrated by enthusiastic suppliers of supplements as a fat-burning substance, it would seem to have a lipolytic action, but the studies available are few and of poor quality. It is believed that the chlorogenic acid may have a weak stimulating effect, one third compared to caffeine, accompanied by a modest laxative action, given that it could corroborate the stimulating effect that some report after the consumption of coffee.

Another substance present in appreciable quantities is the trigonelline, a betaine that in several studies on animal model has shown an appreciable hypoglycaemic effect. Trigonelline can also help reduce the incidence of caries, in fact it prevents the adhesion to the surface of the teeth of Streptococcus mutans, one of the bacteria responsible for the problem.

Also present minerals such as potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and calcium and a whole series of compounds deriving from the reactions of Maillard between sugars and proteins, melanoidins, whose chemical structure is still under study, responsible for the bitter taste of coffee and the smell of cocoa present in some varieties.

Obviously the most known and studied substance, among those present in coffee, is caffeine, a purine alkaloid that in the Arabica is between 1 and 2.5% of the dry weight, while in Robusta it can be up to 4% . The presence of caffeine in the drink varies considerably depending on how it is prepared: it is very high in the espresso, which is however consumed in small quantities, while it is lower in the American coffee, which is however consumed in massive doses. It is estimated that the per capita consumption of caffeine ranges between 150 and 300 mg / day; obviously not all the caffeine we take every day comes from coffee: in fact, they give a significant contribution to tea, chocolate, some carbonated drinks and energy drinks.

We call it caffeine but the official name is – trimethylxanthine, a very bitter compound, even used in the research field as a standard for bitter taste. It is a very powerful stimulant, it is used by athletes to improve strength and endurance, able to improve alertness and attention, with a strong mental stimulation. The usual consumption of caffeine causes addiction, the effects just mentioned tend to fade to disappear – remains a weak action against sleep – and any increase in the dose consumed does not improve the response, which can be restored only by reducing the consumption of coffee for at least a month.

The effect of caffeine is due to its action of antagonist of adenosine, a substance that modulates the response of neurons to neurotransmitters and that at the level of the Central Nervous System has an inhibitory effect. When caffeine binds to adenosine receptors it actually reduces the inhibitory action giving rise to the well known stimulatory effects.

In the stomach, caffeine can favor the emptying of the gastric contents in the small intestine, thus inducing the gastrocolic reflex, one of the possible mechanisms, together with the action of chlorogenic acid, which could explain the weak laxative effect linked to coffee consumption.

Gastrointestinal absorption is very rapid and complete; the peak plasma concentration is reached within 20-60 minutes from the consumption of the drink. Caffeine is metabolized by cytochrome P450, in particular by CYP1A enzymes, and by a series of other enzymes, with a half-life of 3 to 9 hours. The different rate of elimination of caffeine found in different subjects seems to be due to genetic variations, especially at the level of CYP1A, with several studies that showed different values ​​also between the sexes and between different ethnic groups.

Caffeine is a molecule able to cross many of the barriers present at the level of the human body and therefore tends to distribute itself homogeneously in the various tissues, including the brain.

Caffeine, as well as with adenosine, also interferes with the activity of several other neurotransmitters, elevates serotonin, in acute increases adrenaline and noradrenaline – while a chronic consumption reduces the two substances – stimulates the release of acetylcholine and promotes the action of dopamine, a phenomenon that seems to be reduced with chronic intake. This last effect could be the basis of the weak protective effect that the consumption of coffee and products containing caffeine presents beautiful comparisons of Parkinson’s disease, higher in men than in women, negligible in menopausal women who follow an estrogen therapy. Also interesting are the results of some studies in which caffeine has been used, in addition to targeted therapies, for the treatment of motor disorders related to Parkinson’s.

The consumption of coffee is related to a reduction in the risk for type II diabetes, appreciable reduction with a consumption of two cups a day. These are generally observational studies, although some intervention works seem to confirm what is observed on the population. The effect seems to be mainly attributable to the hypoglycemic effect of chlorogenic acid and trigonelline, while caffeine seems to induce a transient insulin resistance, probably mediated by adrenaline, an effect that tends to shrink to disappear with consumption usual. The consumption of coffee can reduce the concentration of C-reactive protein and oxidative stress and furthermore, by modulating the levels of serotonin and ghrelin, it can help reduce appetite. The effect of increased metabolic activity and lipolysis, essentially due to caffeine, is appreciable even if weak, phenomena in which it is observed a progressive addiction.

A good number of studies show that habitual consumption of coffee can have a protective effect on the liver with a reduction in the risk of cirrhosis and other diseases. The protective effect also extends to hepatic carcinomas and seems linked to the extent of consumption and sex, resulting in greater human activity.

The protective effect linked to coffee consumption also affects several forms of cancer: in addition to the liver, there seems to be also an appreciable risk reduction for cancers of the esophagus, the colon, the prostate and for various forms of melanoma. The results, although positive, are however prone to many confounding factors concerning the methods of preparing the drink, the concomitant consumption of alcohol, smoking and even even particular genetic polymorphisms.

Interesting effects of coffee and caffeine in sports activity. Some studies show an increase in maximal strength with caffeine doses of 6mg / kg body weight. A similar dose seems to improve the ability of repeated sprints in well-trained athletes. Significant effects are achieved on aerobic performance, with an increase in the time necessary for complete exhaustion, an effect that is relevant in non-addicted subjects and becomes negligible in habitual consumers. Increases in sports performance are greater in subjects deprived of sleep, probably due to the stimulating action of caffeine.

Does drinking coffee hurt?

Besides the potential positive effects that we have listed, it is also necessary to detect a series of side effects and contraindications related to coffee consumption.

Most of the studies available show an increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with coffee consumption. Part of the problem seems to be related to the modest hypertensive action found in some works, part of the problem could be attributed to the increased level of homocysteine ​​in the serum, observed also in clinical studies, for high coffee consumption and finally a significant contribution could be due to hyperlipidemizing action of coffee, with small but appreciable increases of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, probabilcies due to the action of cafestol and kahweol, two diterpene present in coffee, especially espresso. The results of prospective and intervention studies for pathologies such as myocardial infarction and stroke have however given confusing results, with some works showing weak risk reduction, other small increases: in many cases a protective effect is observed with consumption moderate while the increase is sensitive with high consumption or without any consumption of coffee.

There is also a small increase in risk, related to coffee consumption, with regard to lung cancer, an increase that remains even when the study data have been corrected to compensate for behaviors that may alter the results, such as smoking habits .

Much discussed is the possibility of an increase in the risk of spontaneous abortion in women with high consumption of coffee / caffeine. The results of the studies are mixed, however many authoritative scientific societies suggest that during pregnancy it is better to limit the dose of caffeine taken to a maximum of 200 mg / day (corresponding to about three cups of espresso coffee).

A further restriction of caffeine consumption in pregnancy at doses below 100 mg / day is recommended to avoid a reduction in intrauterine growth of the fetus with a reduced birth weight. Many observational studies indicate a possible correlation between coffee consumption and reduced fetal growth, an effect that seems to be dose dependent, the more pronounced the greater the consumption of caffeine. However, randomized double-blind clinical trials have not produced data to support this hypothesis.

There are data indicating that a high consumption of caffeine during breastfeeding may cause irritability and sleep difficulties for the newborn, however a moderate consumption, less than 200 mg / day would seem to present no particular problems.

Coffee and caffeine reduce the absorption of calcium to the intestinal level, however the effect does not seem to be so significant as to contribute significantly to problems of bone fragility or osteoporosis, particularly when the subject has a good supply of calcium and vitamin D and coffee consumption is not particularly exaggerated.

The phenolic compounds of coffee can reduce the absorption of non-heme iron, the one present in plants for example, therefore subjects with iron deficiency should consume coffee away from main meals.

The consumption of coffee increases the secretion of gastric juices by the stomach and should therefore be avoided or reduced in subjects suffering from gastroesophageal reflux or gastric ulcer.

As we have seen, caffeine is metabolized thanks to the action of cytochrome P450, which is also responsible for the elimination of drugs and other potentially toxic substances. Some antibiotics and drugs can interfere with the processes that lead to the elimination of caffeine, enhancing its adverse effects. In turn, caffeine can interfere with the metabolism of certain drugs such as clozapine, paracetamol and aspirin, enhancing its effects. Caffeine also interferes with the absorption of levothyroxine (Eutirox) which should therefore be taken at a safe distance from the consumption of beverages containing it. It would always be good to check with your doctor whether or not to consume coffee in case of drug therapy, which can give rise to important interactions with the caffeine present in the drink.

The usual consumption of caffeine induces addiction, both to the stimulating action and to some of the effects on biological parameters described above. When a habitual consumer eliminates caffeine intake it can produce withdrawal symptoms, with headaches, fatigue and nervousness, problems that usually resolve within 2-6 days.

Excessive consumption of coffee and caffeine can lead to unpleasant side effects, especially hypertension and palpitations. The toxic dose for humans is about 20-40mg / kg body weight equal to about 1.4 / 2.8g for a subject of 70 kg: the equivalent of about 20-30 cups of espresso, all drunk in one shot. Do not do it at home, it could be dangerous!

A thousand ways to drink coffee

Far be it from me to want to make suggestions on how to prepare a good coffee, a theme which could cause serious conflicts between opposing factions, but I would like to underline some important steps and the main methods of preparation.

The grinding of the roasted beans is a crucial moment because it allows to obtain powders with particles whose dimensions influence the extraction of the substances present. Very thin powders with small particles, offer a high surface and make extraction very fast, while large particles require a prolonged infusion. Ideally the grains should be ground at the time of use, to prevent oxidative processes from occurring that alter their organoleptic characteristics.

The infusion allows the extraction of the substances present in the coffee: from the substances that determine taste and aroma, to pigments, to the carbohydrates that give body to the drink together with the lipids, which participate in the formation of the cream. The amount of powder used and the amount of extracted matter determine the overall quality of the drink. Powders with large particles give an acidic and poor coffee while an excessive extraction, with fine powders, high temperatures and long times, gives an excessively bitter and aggressive drink.

Extraction can take place by prolonged maceration, with coffee in direct contact with water, by percolation, with water passing through the coffee by gravity or pressure, by filtration, as occurs in many of the machines that use enclosed powders in paper or pressure filters, with the typical two-compartment coffee makers.

The water used should have a temperature of 85-95 ° C and should not be chlorinated, calcareous or sulphurous, flavors that could alter that of coffee. Depending on the extraction method, the percentage of coffee solids that we find in the beverage ranges from 1.5% of American coffee to 5% of Italian espresso.

Percolating percolators, typical of Americans, work with long times and temperatures that can reach the boiling point and can give an excessively bitter coffee. Even our moka works at high temperatures, around 110 ° C with a similar principle, even if the relationship between water and powders varies, and a coffee that is sometimes excessively aggressive.

The espresso machine works much faster. Water at 93 ° C is pushed by pressure through very fine powders, used in very high quantities, three or four times those typical of a moka. The extraction time is short, about 30 seconds, and the concentration of extracted materials is very high with the formation of a cream, a dispersion of gas in the liquid, which traps many of the substances present in the coffee, allowing a gradual release in the mouth, with a real explosion of taste.

The aroma and taste of coffee are due to a mixture of at least 500 different compounds: caffeine and phenols are responsible for the bitter taste and astringency of the drink, while the other substances present are responsible for the myriad of different characteristics of the different mixtures and of the different methods of preparation. Adding milk or cream to coffee reduces its astringency – milk proteins bind tannins – but it also binds many of the molecules responsible for taste, significantly reducing its impact.

The typical espresso cup has a caffeine content that is between 30 and 80 mg, while the typical cup of coffee, much more abundant, can reach around 90-160 mg. The dose of caffeine considered safe for an adult is about 300 mg / day, although it is recommended to keep around 200 mg, amount present in three cups of espresso. Remember that caffeine is not only present in coffee but also in tea, chocolate and in carbonated drinks and energy drinks: it is not so difficult to get an overdose of stimulants.

We close the review taking into consideration decaffeinated coffee and instant coffee. Decaffeinated is obtained by eliminating caffeine with two different methods: one involves the use of solvents – dichloromethane and ethyl acetate – while the other uses only water and carbon filters. The caffeine content can be reduced by up to 2-3% of the initial content.

The instant coffee is obtained with successive infusions, at temperatures of 100 and then 170 ° C. The obtained solution is dehydrated or lyophilized, until a powder is obtained which is then agglomerated into larger particles, the form in which the coffee is commercialized. The drink is prepared simply by adding hot water to taste. The taste is not that of espresso, but the speed of preparation makes it a very popular product.

Superfluous that you speak of the thousand and more ways in which coffee is served: it would seem that the creative energies of the human race have concentrated in the conception of the most imaginative methods of preparation. Whether you like it short or long, glass or cream, Irish, Scottish, Arabic or American, remember that coffee is a long-standing beverage, the world market leader, full of substances with marked effects on our body: seize the sides positive, avoiding problems that may come from excessive consumption.

Paleo Diet: Return To The Past

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Paleo Diet is a very special diet that has gained considerable popularity, especially in certain environments, in recent years. The basic objective is to return to a style of feeding similar to that of our predecessors hunter-gatherers, a style for which our body would be better adapted and that should allow to eliminate many of the problems related to modernity.

The first to talk about paleo diet was S. Boyd Eaton in a 1985 article titled Paleolithic Nutrition. In this work it was pointed out how the genus Homo, to which we belong, has evolved essentially as a hunter-gatherer, feeding on meat, that of the prey that could catch, fish, vegetables, fruit seeds, tubers. No legumes, no cereals, no milk, products that have become part of the human diet since just over 10,000 years ago and for which our organism would not yet be adapted. And the transition to a diet based on agricultural products, according to Eaton, would have caused the appearance of a series of problems related to the consumption of foods for which we are fundamentally maladapted. Eaton also examined the diet of the few surviving groups of hunter-gatherers, vague tribes that survive mostly in inhospitable and marginal environments, from the Kung of the Kalahari to the Hadza of Tanzania, to the Australian aborigines, more or less rich in meat and fish. but deprived of typical products of sedentary agriculture, to our current diet, for the truth to the tremendous diet of American friends, rich in refined cereals, fats and sodium, underlining how it could be the consumption of “modern” foods at the root of pathologies constantly growing like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer.

A few years later, Staffan Lindeberg, a Swedish doctor, in his Food and Western Disease increased the dose: based his studies on the inhabitants of Kitava Island in New Guinea, whose diet is based on tubers, fruit, coconut and fish, and whose health appears decidedly superior to that of the western average, Lindeberg pointed out that the foods we currently consume in large quantities are foods for which our body is poorly adapted, while the consumption of “ancestral” food would be the basis of the health of iron of the Kitavani. Lindeberg carefully weighed the data, which was in truth, related to the diet of our ancestors and then proceeded to examine the diseases of “modernity” in the light of the data collected, highlighting the important role that, in his opinion, the foods brought to the table from the passage to agriculture they would have played. Lindeberg then suggested a diet based on food of plant origin, meat, fish, seeds and tubers with the elimination of cereals, legumes and milk, without forgetting to underline also the potential problems related to paleolithic diet.

In 2002 the book The PaleoDiet of the American physiologist Loren Cordain came out, based on his many studies on the subject, he went back to underlining how the current diet is essentially “wrong” from the evolutionary point of view, being too recent: the human organism it would not have had materially the time necessary to adapt to the foods fruit of agriculture, foods to avoid in favor of meat and vegetables in quantity.

In these works we try to reason in the field of evolutionary biology, with the aim of finding a rational able to explain the progressive increase of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, degenerative and autoimmune diseases, so common in industrialized countries. Both authors point out that for most of the evolutionary history of mankind the diet was based on a few products, available through hunting and gathering. For the distant frugivorous ancestors, the foods of choice were mainly fruits and seeds, but over the course of two million years the various species of the genus Homo have adapted to the consumption of new foods, especially meat, fish in coastal areas, fruit, vegetables , seeds and tubers. The domestication of cereals, legumes and the first animals, which allowed the transition to an agricultural society, was, for our experts, a real disgrace: too recent, from 20,000 to 10,000 years ago, and too rapid for allow the species to adapt adequately. This resulted in catastrophic consequences: reduced average height, skeletal and dental problems, almost endemic spread of diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A suggestive hypothesis that, however, as we shall see, presents several weak points.

The problem with the paleodieta is what happened after: on the wave of the carbohydrate phobia that grew up in the United States in the last decade, on the paleo wagon skids of all kinds are skipped, especially those related to particular sports environments, proposing variations in which there were industrial quantities of meat, fat at will and above all the inevitable bacon – a kind of bacon that clearly in the Paleolithic era was to be the main food of our hunting friends. All accompanied by the strict exclusion exclusion of cereals, legumes, milk and a plethora of other foods chosen based on tastes and idiosyncrasies of the subject who proposed his personal interpretation of the diet. A sarabanda that has unfortunately distorted and made grotesque a proposal that was not to be neglected, a confusion that eventually led to brandishing the Paleo as a fad diet, a trendy diet without scientific foundations. Fortunately, in recent years there have been many studies that have examined the effects of the paleo diet on various diseases with very interesting results.

Paleo diet: what do you eat?

Understanding what and how to eat in a paleo diet is not easy: our ancestors who hunted in the savannah unfortunately did not leave us books of recipes and the data we have are based on the collection and examination of the waste of ancient settlements, on relative deductions to the anatomical characteristics modified during the evolution, on the analysis of the diet of the few hunter-gatherer populations left in some remote corner of the planet.

The current consensus provides that a paleo diet is based on the consumption of these foods:

Meat:
Evolutionary biology studies agree that the consumption of meat, a very dense nutritional food, has been crucial for the evolution of mankind. Obviously our ancestors certainly did not eat hamburgers or breaded chicken medallions. The meat consumed was that of wild animals, lean and with a composition of fatty acids decidedly different from that of today’s breeding specimens, with a high presence of stearic acid – which does not cause an increase in cholesterol – high presence of high-quality omega 3 and reduced presence of omega 6, potentially pro-inflammatory if in excess. So we suggest the consumption of meat from animals raised outdoors, with fodder -grass feed is the term for the most performing among you- and not with grains or worse feeds, game and wild animals. Let’s say that this is an approach that not everyone can afford and that certainly could not guarantee adequate consumption for the growing world population. Of course we do not talk about bacon, cold meats or preserved meat. Consumption should be about fresh meat, with frequent use of offal such as liver, heart and bone marrow. Eggs are obviously included, in quantities that certainly would make those doctors who forbid them due to cholesterol fall out: we speak 6-12 eggs a week, strictly from hens raised outdoors.

Fish

Along with the meat on the tables of the devout Paleo should not miss good fish, strictly wild, preferably cold or blue water. Alaskan salmon is the holy Grail but the list includes virtually all fish, shellfish and molluscs you can get your hands on. Obviously these are foods with an excellent nutritional profile, source as well as excellent proteins, also of good quality fats.

Vegetable

From the leafy vegetables to the common vegetables all the vegetables are well received on the paleotavola, abundant, raw or cooked, as long as they are in season and possibly at zero kilometers, or so.

Fruit

Even for fruit there are no particular restrictions; with vegetables it is the main source of sugars in the diet.

Oil seeds and nuts
Nuts, hazelnuts, almonds, brazil nuts, pecans, pumpkin seeds and oil seeds are generally considered excellent sources of protein and are rich in the right fatty acids. Obviously, moderate use is recommended, given the rich caloric intake.

Oils and fats
Among the recommended oils, the olive oil – which is so paleo is not – and the coconut one, between the fatty lard and butter: obviously in controlled quantities and not in buckets, as recommended in some adventurous interpretations of the Paleolithic diet.

In most cases there is no mention of percentages related to the various nutrients: the experience suggests that the income of meat and fish can range from 20 to 40-60% in different populations. Surely most of the dish should be planted, with a good supply of fruit and fat. Very different from the coals of grilled bison lined with bacon that often pretend to paleo while they are simple attempts to suicide overweight Americans.

In the end the idea is to have a good supply of high quality proteins, around 1.2-1.5 grams per kg of body weight against 0.8 g / kg weight of the guidelines, a good supply of carbohydrates – from 25 to 50% – coming mainly from fruit and vegetables, and from a fat intake between 30 and 40%, with a ratio between omega6 and omega 3 moved towards the latter.

Paleo diet: foods to avoid

The foods to avoid are those that have appeared on our table with the passage to agriculture, foods consumed in a very occasional manner in the Paleolithic, domesticated and become the cornerstones of the Neolithic diet.

Cereals

Practically the source of all evil, the cereals must be eliminated in full: too rich in sugar, their consumption causes dramatic fluctuations in blood sugar, creates hormonal storms, sets the conditions for the accumulation of fat and the development is a pro-inflammatory state . In addition, cereals are rich in antinutrients such as phytates that inhibit the absorption of fats and vitamins, and obviously, at least some, contain gluten that can trigger severe immune problems.
Also included in the heap pseudocereal as amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat, also guilty, despite the significant and valuable protein intake, to be excessively rich in sugar.

Legumes

The legumes would have the same dramatic effects as cereals, with an even greater antinutrient load: how to forget the lectins, certain oligosaccarians and some protease inhibitors. For the more fervent paleosostenitori consume a plate of beans is more or less equivalent to a death sentence, ultimately.

Tubers

The situation here is more nuanced: Cordain condemns them without appeal, like bombs of sugar waiting to explode in the jars of the unfortunate consumer, while Lindeberg, strong of his studies on Kitavani, very large consumers of tubers, with an iron health, admits consumption. Maybe you should avoid potatoes, preferring more exotic products from sweet potatoes, to tapioca, to taro.

Obviously, in the original formulation, all kinds of preserved meat – including bacon, a blow to the paleo-enthusiasts of America – meat, industrial products of all kinds, sweets, with the exception of modest quantities, must be avoided like the plague. of honey, excess salt, vegetable oils and margarines.

Some of the closest observers also propose the elimination of some vegetables such as tomatoes and aubergines, rich in solanine, toxic substances that however are reduced with aging and are eliminated by cooking. Many are the tribes and many are the food taboo, with some concession to taste and palate related to “comfort” such as tea, coffee, chocolate – strictly melting – which are allowed in small quantities, as well as wine and spirits , which for some can be consumed, albeit with great measure.

Paleo diet: solid foundations or pious illusions?

The theses on which the Paleo diet is based are undoubtedly suggestive, but not very solid and based on little precise and often questionable assumptions. First of all, the affirmations concerning the diet of our ancestors are difficult to verify, they are at best well circumstantiated hypotheses, while the few surviving tribes of hunter-gatherers present food regimes very different from each other and strictly dependent on the nature of the territory.

As for cereals, some findings show that the cultivation and consumption of wheat are not as recent as hypothesized but could date back to over 100,000 years ago, with the use of flour of various types already widespread in Europe over 30,000 years ago . Legumes have also been part of the human diet for much longer than it was supposed to be.
Many studies show a positive contribution of cereals, whole species and legumes to a good state of health. On the other hand, the deficiencies due to phytates and other antinutrients present are rare, which can become significant only in very limited diets with reduced consumption or complete absence of food of animal origin. And it makes little sense to say that consumption of cereals and legumes by itself causes inflammation and therefore is at the root of all evil. Inflammation in general is a symptom not a disease, and numerous studies have shown that while exaggerated consumption of refined grains may contribute to a systemic inflammation state adequate consumption of whole grains seems to have protective effect.

It should be noted that the much feared and demonized gluten causes real problems, and well diagnosed, to a very small percentage of the population, probably less than 1%, while it is still unclear whether or not gluten hypersensitivity exists which in any case would affect at most 10%. And it seems useless to point out that there are cereals and pseudo-cereals that are completely devoid of gluten, from rice to quinoa.

Regarding lectins and saponins, the fearsome poisons of legumes, which in the opinion of detractors would reduce to a sieve the wall of the intestine, causing leaky gut syndrome, these are statements that have not been extensively investigated with appropriate studies , and it is therefore difficult to support correctness.

The other great accused in the paleo-supporter’s court is milk, with all its derivatives. Let’s start from the basic observation, the classic “only man consumes adult milk, and moreover of other species”: evidently these gentlemen have never seen dogs or cats in the presence of milk and especially, in nature, different species work to recover milk from other animals.
Equally unfounded are the claims that milk is an “acidifier”, milk and dairy products do not in fact produce acidic or metabolic acidosis, or cause osteoporosis, as proven by a large number of controlled studies. Among other things, the fact that a large part of the Western population, from 50 to 95% in Europe and North America, maintains the activity of lactase, an enzyme essential for the digestion of milk even in adulthood rather than losing it in childhood, as is still the case for most of the African and Asian populations, it is a very evident proof of how evolution and selection operate extremely rapidly in the human population, much more quickly than supposed by the paleo diet theorists who would like our genome frozen in some point of the remote past, 100 or 200,000 years ago. The domestication of dairy animals and the use of milk and its derivatives have led to such an obvious advantage in the populations in which they occurred, to determine an effective selection of those individuals who retained the ability to digest these foods as adults. Individuals who then transmitted this character to their numerous offspring, determining a notable diffusion of these traits in the human population, relevant among those peoples for whom the consumption of milk was essential for survival in decidedly hostile environments: ask the Scandinavian friends.

For what concerns the fatty acids, certainly the research shows the importance of a good consumption of omega 3, but there are no specific ratios or doses. Indeed, many of the warmly recommended foods in the Paleo diet, such as coconut oil or almonds, have an omega 6 content – so dangerous for Paleo theorists – dramatically elevated compared to omega 3. Even here consumption is more important attentive and varied, rather than a strenuous search for values ​​that are little more than hypotheses.

And finally no, gentlemen, sugar is not a deadly white poison, refined and lethal ready to disintegrate the wall of your vessels. As always is the dose that makes the poison and if you like a teaspoon of refined sugar in the coffee, which of course is not paleo since there were no espresso machines in the savannah during the Paleolithic, use it. If you consume industrial quantities of desserts, make an examination of conscience, but not because you eat non-pale foods: simply because you eat too much and badly.

These observations have the sole purpose of highlighting how some “theoretical” bases of the paleo diet are not correct and derive from non-demonstrated axioms or even in contrast with the available data. This does not deny that some assumptions are interesting and that indeed the modern Western diet is unsuitable for our lifestyle, but more for reasons related to excess and poor quality of food than to the specific type of food consumed. Certainly we are not well adapted to our current lifestyle, as the biologist Daniel Lieberman writes in his The History of the Human Body, but the situation is much more nuanced and complex than painted with rather imprecise brushes by the supporters of the paleo diet.

And I do not want to talk about the grotesque market of paleo supplements based on milk proteins or maltodextrins that should perhaps replace fresh but very forbidding foods, a veritable fair of bad faith. Always be wary of diets that require you to permanently renounce whole food groups, tracing a clear line between good and bad foods. Man is an omnivorous and much of his evolutionary success is due precisely to his ability to adapt to diets and deeply different foods. Except the hemlock, which hurts even if it is natural.

Organic eating: the advantages endorsed by scientific research

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Organic Eating
Organic Eating

Many people approach the organic for environmental reasons, ethical or to improve their well-being. But what are the health benefits of eating bio?

The organic food industry tends to grow a little around the world and many people are approaching what is considered a more natural food as it is produced without using chemicals and respecting the cycles of the earth. Even organic farms, for those who eat meat or dairy products, undoubtedly offer better products. This obviously has advantages for our health as well, irrespective of the nutritional values in organic products we are sure (frauds permitting) to have products without GMOs, without pesticides or hormones. Let’s try to list, scientific research in hand, the advantages of choosing organic.

We avoid (at least in part) exposure to pesticides and heavy metals

Organic fruits and vegetables are grown without the use of synthetic pesticides or artificial fertilizers. These chemicals have been considered “safe” in the quantities used for conventional agriculture, but health experts warn about the potential damage they can actually do if exposure is constant and especially on certain categories of people such as children and pregnant women. . An example that we all know is Roundup, the well-known herbicide commonly used but classified as “probable carcinogen” but also the Clorpirifos, neurotoxic insecticide associated with delays in the development of newborns. Some studies have also suggested that pesticide residues, at levels commonly present in the urine of children in the United States, can contribute to the increase of attention disorders and hyperactivity as well as reduce sperm quality in men.

A 2014 meta-analysis published in the British Journal of Nutrition found that organic crops were not only less likely to contain pesticides but, due to differences in fertilization techniques, they were also less likely to be positive to cadmium, toxic heavy metal which accumulates in the liver and kidneys.

More healthy fats

As for meat and milk, produced according to the dictates of organic, these can have about 50% more of precious Omega-3 fatty acids compared to conventional products. To say a 2016 study published in the British Journal of Nutrition. The organic milk tested in the study also found a lower presence of saturated fats compared to standard products.

These differences, according to the researchers, can derive from the way cattle are bred, mainly thanks to a grass based diet and the possibility for the animals to spend more time outdoors. It is also argued that switching from conventional products to organic products would increase the consumption of Omega-3 by consumers without increasing overall calories or saturated fats.

No antibiotic or synthetic hormone

Always talking about biological farms, it should be noted that it is forbidden to use antibiotics in the preventive phase to protect animals from any diseases. This trick, among other things, is precisely what allows traditional breeding to keep the animals very close to each other, in a situation of overcrowding and consequently in precarious health conditions (if you do not use the antibiotics that make safe from real and their epidemics). Among other things, this practice of using antibiotics indiscriminately is contributing to a very serious phenomenon that of resistance and mutation of some bacteria that become precisely “resistant” to drugs that previously contributed to eradicate them.

Conventionally bred animals can also undergo increased growth thanks to synthetic hormones that make them gain weight faster or produce more milk. Traces of these substances can obviously be found in products of animal origin that we consume if they are not organic.

More antioxidants (in some cases)

In a study a few years ago appeared in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, researchers found that organic onions had about 20% more antioxidant content than traditional onions. They also theorized that previous analyzes, many of which did not find differences in conventional levels compared to biological antioxidants, may have been hindered by too short evaluation periods or by confusing variables such as time.

But the reasons for choosing biological are also others and do not concern only our health. In fact, the benefits go well beyond the nutritional discourse. It is a mainly ethical choice, both for environmental factors (biological crops are not intensive, do not use pesticides harmful to the earth and safeguard biodiversity) and for animal welfare (organic farms, at least on paper, are a bit ‘more sustainable as the animals in addition to receiving a bio food also have more vital spaces).

It is also important to remember that the concept of organic is diametrically opposite to that of GMOs and that therefore choosing to eat bio we take a very precise position regarding genetically modified foods.

Cheeses without animal rennet: the list updated to 2018

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What are the cheeses without animal rennet and therefore also suitable for vegetarians? Here is the complete list of cheeses with vegetable or microbiotic rennet on the market, updated to 2018.

There are cheeses with and without animal rennet. For vegetarians it is very important to know the difference as well as the list of those that are made without using this ingredient or preferring the plant or microbial variant. Here then are the cheeses without animal rennet updated to 2018.

The cheeses, in order to reach their characteristic consistency, different from type to type, must be processed with the use of rennet. But what exactly is it?

What is rennet?

Rennet is an acidic substance that serves to ensure that milk proteins are coagulated, this is essential to condense various types of cheese and there are very few types that do not contain this ingredient.

Practically the use of rennet makes sure that the milk proteins are no longer soluble, precipitino on the bottom creating precisely the “curd” which is then collected and re-worked to make the different cheeses. A substance therefore of fundamental importance but which hides little “green” implications, at least for those who have chosen to respect the animals by not eating meat.

Animal, vegetable and microbial rennet

There are different types of rennet, specifically:

  • Animal rennet: also known as the rennet is composed of an enzyme extracted from the stomach of calves or lambs. It is still considered the best type of rennet and is used for example to produce PDO cheeses.
  • Vegetable rennet: there are different types of rennet, there is for example that which is extracted from the fig tree (it is latex) or those that are obtained from flowers and plants such as the common thistle (Cynara cardunculus).
  • Microbial rennet: this type is extracted from a mold (Mucor miehei) and is considered a less valuable and economical rennet variant.

There is also a coagulant obtained from genetically modified fungal organisms such as Aspergillus niger var. awamori or bacterial like Escherichia coli.

The rennet on the label

There are some types of cheese that are always without animal rennet, two known examples are ricotta and mascarpone. This is true because they are subjected to a type of processing that, at the base, does not require the use of this ingredient (even in the vegetable variant).

For almost all types of cheese, however, it is advisable to check with the manufacturer or carefully read the label on the type of rennet present. In some cases there may be the simple word “rennet” even if more often there is the indication “animal rennet”, “vegetable rennet” or “microbial rennet” also to give way to vegetarians to orient themselves in choosing the cheese to buy .

To make informed choices, as always it is essential to carefully read the list of ingredients of what we want to bring to the table.

Cheeses without animal rennet: the updated 2018 list

Given the increased demand for cheese without animal rennet, several companies have marketed products made with vegetable rennet or microbial rennet, even where traditionally that product was curdled instead with the solution of animal origin.

There are therefore stracchino, mozzarella and also some caciotta made with vegetable rennet or microbial rennet. Easier yet to find fresh cheeses and first salt without animal rennet, while decidedly more difficult for a vegetarian to eat mature cheeses.

List of Vegetarian cheeses

According to the following cheese companies, these cheeses do not contain rennet or any other nonvegetarian enzymes:

Kraft

  • Kraft Natural Swiss
  • Kraft Cream Cheeses
  • Grated Parmesan

Stella

(phone 1-800-558-7315)

  • Mozzarella
  • Provolone
  • Parmesan
  • Ricotta
  • String cheese

Frigo

  • Mozzarella

Giant

  • Cheese made by Pauly
  • County Line: Old World Swiss, Colby, Monterey Jack
  • Giant Cream Cheese
  • Giant Natural Swiss slices
  • Giant Natural Muenster slices
  • Biery cheese
  • Giant Chunk Cheese: New York Sharp, Wisconsin Cheddar, Longhorn, Swiss, Danish Havarti, Monterey Jack, Pepper Jack

Sargento

  • Pepper
  • Muenster
  • Cheddar

Mid American Farms

  • Parmesan
  • Mozzarella
  • Cheddar

Cabot

 

All cheeses

If you want to live 10 more years, follow these 5 habits

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Maintaining five healthy habits could not only make us live better and healthier but extend our life expectancy by ten years. For the first time, a team of researchers from Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health calculated it.

Follow a healthy diet, exercise daily, maintain adequate body weight, do not consume too much alcohol and do not smoke. These are the 5 keys to living for a long time. Things that we already knew, but now for the first time their presence or absence has been related to the duration of our lives.

It is in fact the first complete analysis of the impact of adopting factors based on a healthy lifestyle on life expectancy in the United States.

Americans have a shorter average life than almost all other high-income countries. Globally, the United States is in 43rd place, with an average of 80 years, according to data from the Central Intelligence Agency’s World Factbook 2017.

The three countries in first place for life expectancy at birth are Monaco, with 89.4 years, Japan, with 85.3 years and Singapore, with 85.2 years. Italy is in 15th place with 82.3 years.

The study aimed to quantify the impact of factors linked to a healthy lifestyle with a view to increasing longevity in the country. To do so, Harvard researchers examined 34 years of data from 78,865 women and 27 years of data from 44,354 men who participated in two studies.

The researchers looked at the five low-risk lifestyle factors that could impact mortality:

  1. Absence of cigarette smoke
  2. Low body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg / m2)
  3. At least 30 minutes or more per day of physical activity
  4. Moderate consumption of alcohol (up to about a glass of wine of 150 ml per day forWomen, or up to 2 glasses for men)
  5. Healthy diet.

They found that those who did not follow any of these habits had a lower life expectancy than those who followed them. In particular, life expectancy at the age of 50 was another 29 years for women and 25.5 years for men. Instead, those who had followed these five good habits presented a life expectancy of 43.1 years for women and 37.6 years for men after the age of 50.

In other words, women earned on average, 14 years of life and men 12 years, compared to peers who did not follow the same correct habits.

“This study underscores the importance of following healthy living habits to improve longevity in the US population,” said Frank Hu, president of the Harvard Chan School Nutrition Department and lead author of the study.

The research, even if applied to the American context, certainly offers interesting indications even outside the US borders.

There is no doubt that proper nutrition, accompanied by physical exercise, a correct weight, low consumption of alcohol and the absence of the cigarette is beneficial and promotes a healthier and longer life.

The research was published in Circulation.